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X
X. In the written terminology of various arts and trades, where two or more dimen­sions of the same piece or article are to be stated, this letter is a well-known symbol equivalent to the word "by." Thus, the for­mula "3 x 5 in." will be understood, or may be explained by parol evidence, to mean "three by five inches," that is, measuring three inches in one direction and five in another. See Jaqua v. Witham & A. Co., 106 Ind. 547, 7 N. E, 314.
XENODOCHITTM. In the civil and old English law. An inn allowed by public li­cense, for the entertainment of strangers, and other guests. Calvin.; Cowell.
A hospital; a place where sick and infirm persons are taken care of. Cowell.
XENODOCHY. Reception of strangers; hospitality. Enc. Lond.
XYLON. A punishment among the Greeks answering to our stocks. Wharton.
Y
> lord. So the owners of wreck must claim it
within a year and a day. Death must follow
upon wounding within a year and a day if the
wounding is to be indicted as murder. Also, a
I year and a day were given for prosecuting or avoiding certain legal acts; e. g., for bnnging actions after entry, for making claim for avoid-| ing a fine, etc. Brown.—Year books. Books of reports of cases in a regular series from the reign of the English King Edward I., inclusive, to the time of Henry VIII., which were taken r by the prothonotaries or chief scribes of the ' courts, at the expense of the crown, and pub­lished annually; whence their name, "Year Books." Brown.—-Year, day, and waste. In English law. An ancient prerogative of the king, whereby he was entitled to the profits, for a year and a day, of the lands of persons at­tainted of petty treason or felony, together with i the right of wasting the tenements, afterwards restoring the property to the lord of the fee. Abrogated by St. 54 Geo. III. a 145. Whar-tion.—Year to year, tenancy from. This es­tate arises either expressly, as when land is let t from year to year; or by a general parol de-: mise, without any determinate interest, but . reserving the payment of an annual rent; or impliedly, as when property is occupied gen­erally under a rent payable yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly ; or when a tenant holds over, after the expiration of his term, without having en­tered into any new contract, and pays rent, (be­fore which he is tenant on sufferance.) Whar-
> ton.—Years, estate for. See Estate fob
j Yeabs.
t
YEAS AND NAYS. The aflirmative and , negative votes on a bill or measure before , a legislative assembly. "Calling the yeas and nays" is calling for the individual and oral vote of each member, usually upon a call t of the roll. I
* YEME. In old records. Winter; a cor­ruption of the Latin "hiems."
t YEOMAN. In English law. A common-
i er; a freeholder under the rank of gentle-

YEOMAN
1237
YVERNAIL BLBS

man. Cowell. A man who has free land of forty shillings by the year; who was an­ciently thereby qualified to serve on juries, vote for knights of the shire, and do any oth­er act, where the law requires one that is probus et legalis homo. 1 Bl. Comm. 406, 407.
This term is occasionally used in American law, but without any definite meaning, except in the United States navy, where it desig­nates an appointive petty officer, who has charge of the stores and supplies in his de­partment of the ship's economy.
—Yeomanry. The collected body of yeomen. -Yeomen of the guard. Properly called "yeomen of the guard of the royal household;" a body of men of the best rank under the gen­try, and of a larger statute than ordinary, every one being required to be six feet high. Enc. Lond.
YEVEN, op YEOVEN. Given; dated. Cowell.
YIELD, In the law of real property, is to perform a service due by a tenant to his lord. Hence the usual form of reservation of a rent in a lease begins with the words "yield­ing and paying." Sweet
YIELDING AND PAYING. In convey­ancing. The initial words of that clause in leases in which the rent to be paid by the lessee is mentioned and reserved.
YOKEIiET. A little farm, requiring but a yoke of oxen to till it.
YORK, CUSTOM OF. A custom of the province of York in England, by which the
effects of an intestate, after payment of his debts, are in general divided according to the ancient universal doctrine of the pars ra-tionabilis; that is, one-third each to the wid­ow, children, and administrator. 2 Bl. Coram. 518.
YORK, STATUTE OF. An important English statute passed at the city of York, in the twelfth year of Edward II., contain­ing provisions on the subject of attorneys, witnesses, the taking of inquests by nisi prius, etc. 2 Reeve, Eng. Law, 299-302.
YORKSHIRE REGISTRIES. The reg­istries of titles to land provided by acts of parliament for the ridings of the county of York in England. These resemble the offices for the registration or recording of deeds commonly established in the several counties of the states.
YOUNGER CHILDREN. This phrase, when used in English conveyancing with ref­erence to settlements -of land, signifies all such children as are not entitled to the rights of an eldest son. It therefore includes daugh­ters, even those who are older than the eld­est son. Mozley & Whitley.
YOUTH. This word may include children and youth of both sexes. Nelson v. Cushing, 2 Cush. (Mass.) 519, 528.
YULE. The times of Christmas and Lam­mas.
YVERNAIL BLE. L. Fr. Winter grain. Kelham.

ZANJA 1238 ZYTHUM
Z
ZANJA. Span. A water ditch or artifi­cial canal, and particularly one used for pur­poses of irrigation. See Pico v. Colimas, 32 Cal. 578.
ZANJERO. Span. A water commission­er or superintendent, or supervisor of an ir­rigation system. See Pico v. Colimas, 32 Cal. 57&
ZEALOT. This word is commonly taken in a bad sense, as denoting a separatist from the Church of England, or a fanatic. Brown.
ZEALOUS WITNESS. An untechnical term denoting a witness, on the trial of a cause, who manifests a partiality for the side calling him, and' an eager readiness to tell anything which he thinks may be of ad­vantage to that side.
ZEIR. O. Sc Year. "Zeir and day." Bell.
ZEMINDAR. In Hindu law. Landkeep-er. An officer who under the Mohammedan government was charged with the financial superintendence of the lands of a district, the protection of the cultivators, and the realization of the government's share of its produce, either in money or kind. Wharton.
ZETETICK. Proceeding by inquiry. Btu^ Lond.
ZIGARI, or ZINGARL, Rogues and vag­abonds in the middle ages; from Zigl, now Circassia.
ZOLL-VEBEIN. A union of German states for uniformity of customs, established, in 1819. It continued until the unification of the German empire, including Prussia. Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Baden, Hesse* Cassel, Brunswick, and Mecklenburg-Strelit*» and all intermediate principalities. It haa now been superseded by the German empire; and the federal council of the empire hat taken the place of that of the Zoll-Verein. Wharton.
ZYGOCEPHALUM. In the civil law. A measure or quantity of land. Nov. 17, c. 8. As much land as a yoke of oxen could plow in a day. Calvin.
ZTGOSTATES. In the civil law. A weigher; an officer who held or looked to the. balance in weighing money between buyer and seller; an officer appointed to determine controversies about the weight of money. Spelman.
ZYTHUM. Lat. A liquor or beverage made of wheat or barley. Dig. 33, 6, 9, pr.



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